This pilot study in the Malinke describes and analyzes the diseases to which children are exposed from 0 to 5 years, as well as socio-cultural referents care protection to infants and young children in those societies. The depth individual interviews, focus groups and direct observation have revealed the range of childhood illnesses and care practices provided for child protection. Through the technique of rational choice, we interviewed mothers, fathers, and traditional healers. The collection covered a period of one month, from November 15th, 2015 at December 14th, 2015. The study showed that the commonly encountered diseases are named (bird, fontanel, hot body, sore eyes, the cough, malaria, stomach bloating, diarrhea, anemia, ringworm, malnutrition, stomach ulcer, etc.) and care practices that control the use of so-called magic strings, powders, plants, etc. to allow development and growth of the child. The biomedicine and traditional medicine must work together for a comprehensive care of the health of the child.
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