Article Subject

Cultural practices are commonly known as simplest, cheapest and safest approaches for combating pests and diseases of agricultural
crops. These involve modification of the environment governing the relationships between phytophagous fauna and their host plants.
The main components targeted by such practices may include the soil, plant and climatic factors, besides the relevant regulatory
measures. The physical and chemical properties of a soil have a great role on the status of soil biodiversity which ultimately affecting
the biological activities in the plant rhizosphere. Since there are interactions between the soil, plant and the surrounding environment
(biotic and abiotic), hence soil characteristics mainly interfere with the occurrence and severity of several pests and diseases.
Therefore, soil manipulation through cultural means may have significant influence either in suppressing or enhancing such biotic
stresses on plants. Moreover, certain cultural practices may also play an important role in modifying the micro-climate within the crop
canopy, and therefore more or less affecting the performances of plants and phytophagous species. In this paper, the impact of some
soil features and various cultural practices on the occurrence of plant pests and diseases were reviewed, with special reference to
indigenous experiences accumulated in Sudan. Significant results were obtained through different measures; and in some instances
full pests controls were achieved relying merely on cultural approach. The collected results encouraging more research on these
neglected fields, which are potentially important in ecological pest and disease management.

Cultural practices; soil properties; pests; diseases; control; Sudan.
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